Saturday, November 24, 2018

Institutions in Chile

1- Grouping


As you know people live together with other people making communitites. There are small communities like your family and bigger ones like schools, communes and countries.


agrupaciones sociales
Family:  
Family is the basics of society, there are different types of family, but there must be love, respect and protection in all of them. It is in charge of educating children and teaching them values.  Some families are big and others small, but no matter how they are like, they are all important and special.

School:  
School is the place where children adquire knowledge to integrate society. Also, children make friends, play, eat and spend most of the day there.



2- Public Institutions


An institution is a group of people who work together to achieve a particular function of public interest, in other words, to be useful for all people.

Hospitals: 
Doctors, nurses and paramedics take of patients in hospitals, appart from saving people's lifes with their job. They are also in charge of preventing illnesses, people's dental care, children's medical checks, etc. 


Courts:
Judges and lawyers work in courts. They help people with their legal problems. They also pass sentences to those who don't obey the law. 


Libraries:

In the library we can find lots of books to read and have fun. There are also computers and you can visit it whenever you want. The person in charge of a library is called librarian.

Police: 

This institution protecs and helps people who have been robbed, attacked, who have had an accident or an important loss. It was founded on april 27th, 1927. We can identify them because of their green uniform. They have got a badge with two crossed carbines. 

Firefighters:
Firefighters are in charge of putting out fires and helping with different kinds of rescues. In Chile, firefighters provide a public service without payment, that is to say, firefighters are voluntary workers. This institution was created in Valparaíso and is more than 150 years old.


Source: www.portaleducativo.net 

Math is everywhere !

What Are 3-Dimensional Shapes?

Shapes that are 3-dimensional are all around us! Take a look around you right now. Most things in this world are made up of 3-dimensional shapes. Sometimes we call these 3-D shapes for short.
You may want to know where 3-dimensional shapes get their names before we get started. The word 3-dimensional basically refers to a shape that 'pops out' at you. More specifically, 3-dimensional shapes are not flat. They take up space with how wide they are, how high or long they are, and how deep they are from front to back.
A pencil, ice cube, and ball are all examples of 3-dimensional shapes. For example, you can wrap your fingers around the shape of a pencil in order to draw, and you can hold an ice cube and a ball too. While you could draw a 3-dimensional shape on paper (as you can see in our sample images below), a true 3-D shape can't be flattened.


What Makes Up a 3-Dimensional Shape?

Most 3-D shapes are made up of faces, edges, and vertices.
  • The face of a 3-D shape, is basically just the flat part of the shape.
  • The edge, is the straight line that separates the faces. Think of it as the edge of a cliff.
  • The vertices are the corners. However, when referring to only one corner, we use the word vertex.

Picture A
Picture A

The 3-D shape in Picture A has 6 faces, 12 edges, and 8 vertices.





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Who rules?

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Structure of Governments
Although many countries have similar institutions, the definition of those bodies and the way they work together can vary greatly. The main bodies are an executive, or head of state; a legislature; and a judiciary, or court system. Often these are defined by a constitution. In democracies the roles of these institutions are clearly defined and separated to some extent. In some countries these are all controlled by one person or a small group of people. Such countries can be mocarchies or dictatorships.

Democracy

There are two types of constitutional democracy in the world today. These are the presidential system, such as that of the United States, and the parliamentary system, such as that of the United Kingdom.
In both systems political parties are key institutions. It is through them that the citizens are able to express their opinion by voting for candidates for office. The parties are groups of people with similar views about major issues. Most candidates for political office are members of a particular party, though membership in a party means different things in different countries.
In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, the parties are fairly rigid, meaning that its members are expected to always vote with the party. In the United States, however, party members are free to vote as they see fit on any particular issue. The number of parties can also vary in each country. In some, notably the United States and the United Kingdom, there are only two main parties. In others there may be many parties. Because power is divided among more groups, it is less likely that one group will have a clear majority to rule. In such cases several parties must work together to share power.

Presidential system

In a presidential system the executive, legislative, and judicial branches are clearly separated. The president is elected by the people and is not a member of the legislature. In such systems the president is both the political head of the government and also the head of state, who presides over ceremonies and official functions. The president chooses people to serve as his or her cabinet. These are the heads of the various departments. They are not elected.
The legislature usually consists of two bodies. In the U.S. Congress, members of both the Senate and the House of Representatives are elected officials. Like the president, they are elected for set terms.
Established court systems are found in all advanced political systems. There are often several levels of courts. In the United States judges of local courts are elected by the people of a particular district. The highest court is the Supreme Court. Supreme Court justices are appointed by the president and approved by the Senate.

Parliamentary system

In a parliamentary system the prime minister is the national political leader, and another figure serves as the head of state. In the United Kingdom the head of state is the queen. In Japan it is the emperor. In some countries the head of state may be an elected president, but the prime minister usually has the true power. The prime minister is generally a member of the legislature who is either elected by the legislature or chosen automatically as the leader of the party with the most members in the legislature. The prime minister’s cabinet, and the leaders of the government departments, are also members of the legislature.

Other systems

Some constitutional countries, notably France, have systems that combine elements of the presidential and parliamentary approaches. Although France’s constitution established a parliamentary form of government, it also increased the role of the president of the republic. The constitution gives the president the power to appoint the prime minister and the executive ministers, preside over the cabinet, sign the more important decrees, appoint high civil servants and judges, and dissolve one house of the parliament. Because of this arrangement the prime minister and president must share power to a certain extent.

Monarchies

In a monarchy one person—the king or queen—has control over all parts of the government. Most countries that had been ruled by a monarch had become constitutional monarchies. In such cases the government consisted of a parliamentary system led by a prime minister. The king or queen had a very limited role as the head of state. 

Dictatorships

Dictatorships can take various forms. Sometimes elected presidents and prime ministers capture power by establishing one-party rule and ending all opposition. They may continue to call the country a republic and maintain some institutions, such as a legislature, but in fact they control all the power in the country. In other cases, the military may take control. One of the major differences between democracies and dictatorships is in the role played by political parties since there are no elections in dictatorships.


Friday, November 23, 2018

Concert Costumes: La Tirana

Dear Students, 

These are the costumes you will wear for our concert. I understand some of them are very detailed and complicated but your costumes don't need to be exactly like in the examples, try to follow them as much as you can. In case of any questions you can contact me at eorlandos@stjohns.cl

Cóndor


Ángel Blanco
The costume is like the one you see in the picture but everything needs to be white, you need to wear gloves as well and I recommend you wear a white pantyhose


Ángel Morado
You can add to the hat a purple or pink feather. I recommend you wear purple pantyhose, your boots should be also purple or any color that matches the outfit. Please wear two braids and tie them up with a golden ribbon



Diablo Mayor



Vasco de Almeida


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La Tirana
This dress should be long and white. Please wear sandals and try to use golden aplications for the details and cape. You don't need the axe or sword. Make sure your hair is loose.


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Diablos
For this costume please try to get organized so that you all dress the same way. You can create your own masks and if it is possible to add lights to the masks that would be fantastic! Here there is an idea for you to make a mask :)




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Supays
For this costume please try to get organized so that you all dress the same way. Don't forget the hat (it can be of one colour only) and two braids tied up with a golden or red ribbon. Decide if everyone will wear black boots or just shoes. You also need to have two little kerchiefs (they can be of different colours). You don't need the mask, pictures are just a reference.

In case you feel those two costumes are too complicated to make or get, some simpler ideas for you can be:

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Watch the following videos to get more ideas for your costume:





Concert Costumes: Chinese New Year


              Forms 4 Concert 2018: Chinese New Year 













Concert Costumes: Saint Patrick's Day

Dear students: these are the costumes you will wear for our part of the concert. Try follow the examples as much as posible. If you have any doubt please let me know at school or by email: sdiaz@stjohns.cl
Miss Scarleth






Concert Costumes: Carnaval de Río







Concert Costumes: Día de Muertos

Dear children,

I am sharing a video with you, so you can practise at home some of the moves we will include in our part of the concert.






Belo, you will find some ideas for you to create your costumes. Remember that zombie characters's clothes should look untidy, dirty or ragged. 

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Resultado de imagen para guard Resultado de imagen para gabriela mistral Resultado de imagen para amelia earhart costume Resultado de imagen para disfraz de violeta parra para niña 


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Make sure to talk to me in case of any inconvenience, so we can make changes if needed.


Miss Constanza.

Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Branches of the Government


Chile is a Democratic Republic. There are three branches of power in Chile: 

Legislative Branch:

Resultado de imagen para legislative branch for kidsThe Legislative Branch is the part of the government that writes up and votes on laws, also called legislation. It is represented by the Congress. There are two parts that make up the Congress: the House of Representatives and the Senate. 


Executive Branch: 

Its function is to administer the state. The leader of the Executive Branch is the President of the nation. The President holds all the power for this branch of the government and the other members report to the President. The President is chosen by the people. Presidential elections are held every four years. 

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Judicial Branch: 

Resultado de imagen para judicial branch for kidsIt is in charge of making sure people respect laws and judges whoever breaks it. The institution that represents the Judicial Branch is the Supreme Court. The Judicial Branch of the government is made up of judges and courts. The job of the courts is to interpret the laws of the Congress. Federal judges are not elected by the people. They are appointed by the president and then confirmed by the Senate. 


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How is the government organization in 
USA different from Chile's?

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Flag colors

What do flag colors mean? 
Do you know which color is used most in flags? 
And what the colours represent? 








Steps for creating your country's flag!



Vexillography is the art of designing flags. A good flag is simple, meaningful, and easy to recognize. Flags can be used to represent cities, states, countries, organizations, and even movements. They have a way of bringing people together under a series of symbols and colours. In order to design a flag, you should decide on the basic layout, add symbolism, and keep it simple. 

In this post we will present some steps that will help you when creating your country's flag. We hope they are useful.

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PART 1: Deciding on the basic layout

1

Choose the shape for your flag. Most flags are either rectangular or square. Your flag doesn't have to be rectangular, but you should stick to simple shapes that are easy to see from a distance. For example, Nepal’s flag is made of two overlapping triangles.

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2

Choose a simple design. Some of the most common flag designs are bicolors, tricolors, and quarters, or use stripes, panels, and borders. The flag can also be a solid color with a unique symbol in the center. Alternatively, you can place a rectangle in the upper left hand corner called a canton (like on the American flag) that includes a symbol.

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3

Use 2 to 3 colors. As a general rule, you should only use 2 to 3 colors in your flag design. If you use more they can be hard to distinguish. The most common colors found on flags are black, blue, green, red, white, and yellow. You can use light and dark colors to create contrast.

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PART 2: Adding symbolism

1

Decide what you want your flag to represent. When you are designing a flag it is very important that you choose colors and images that symbolize the organization or place your flag represents. For instance, you may be designing a flag for a micronation, fictional land, club, organization, or charity. Keep this in mind when you are adding symbolism to your flag.

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2

Choose colors that have meaning. When you are selecting which colors to include on your flag, make sure the colors have some sort of symbolic meaning. For example, if your location is near water, you may want to include blue in your flag to symbolize the water. 

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3

Add an image. Images and symbols can be used to help distinguish your flag from others, and will communicate the purpose or meaning behind the flag. The image of an eagle could symbolize freedom or power, a star could stand for divinity or honor, and a circle could represent the sun.

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PART 3: Keeping it simple

1

Don’t include lettering on a flag. Lettering is not necessary on a flag. The colours and symbols on the flag should be enough to identify what the flag is representing. Lettering is also difficult to read from a distance and will look backwards if viewed from the opposite side

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2

Decide on a design that is easy to draw. The best flag designs are those that are easy to draw. Do not include a complex seal or emblem on your flag. This will make it difficult to reproduce. Flag designs should be simple enough for a child to draw from memory.

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3

Use a flag design app. If you have been tasked with designing a flag, but don’t know where to start, you can try using a flag design app to give you ideas for different basic designs and symbols. Search online for a flag design app.

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Institutions in Chile

1- Grouping As you know people live together with other people making communitites. There are small communities like your family and...

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